Category Archives: Analysing

How to Interpret a Birth Record?

Standard Entry in a Birth Record

Latin Terms Appearing in the Form

Pag. (page number)              Liber natorum(Book of births)

1906 (the year 1906)

Dies et Mensis (Day and Month)

Natus (Birth) Baptisatus (Baptism)

Numerus Domus (House Number) Continue reading

Kremlin trolls are engaged in massive anti-Ukrainian propaganda in Poland

Euromaidan Press

Russian internet trollsRussian internet trolls 

Article by: Yuriy Savytskyi

Warsaw — Kremlin “trolls” have launched a massive campaign to discredit Ukraine and Ukrainians in the Polish Internet space. Polish analysts note that an unprecedented wave of anti-Ukrainian propaganda on the Web first appeared in 2013, shortly after the Maidan protests began in Kyiv. In order to convince the Poles that Ukrainians are their bitter enemies, the Internet trolls are repeating the views of the current Kremlin authorities hundreds of thousands of times.

Mateusz Bajek, editor of the Polish portal kaukaz.pl, has an atypical hobby. He hunts Russian Internet trolls, who, for the past two years, have become extremely active on the Polish web and online networks. Bajek believes that one of the most striking examples of the Kremlin’s trolling in Poland is the Internet forum of the Russian-Polish Radio Sputnik Polska, where Kremlin trolls began to appear massively in late autumn of 2013. Continue reading

Explain this – deceased husband serves as informant on his wife’s death certificate

From MILLENIA Legacy News

Posted by in News & Views

I’ve heard of people coming back to life, but that was more than 2,000 years ago. Yet according to Adelaide Brown’s death certificate, her husband, who had been deceased for more than two years, was listed as the informant.

Leonard, Adelaide - 1916 death certificate

In two places it clearly states that Adelaide was a widow at the time of her death:

Field 5:

Death1

Field 8:

Death2

Yet field 14 clearly shows the name of the informant AND has the informant’s relationship to the decedent:

Death3

How could Adelaide’s deceased husband be the informant on her death certificate? Below are a few ideas I had, but if you have any other ideas, please let me know in the comments.

Could her husband, Charles Frederick Brown, have been alive at the time of her death? Yes, and I should follow up on this to have more convincing evidence of it. He was last known to be alive in 1910 as he was living in Philadelphia in this Continue reading

The Tale of the Boiling Frog

This article from Euromaiden Press links the fable of the boiling frog to Russian society accepting its worsening fate under Putin. The premise is that if a frog is placed in boiling water, it will leap out to escape the danger, but if it is placed in cold water that is slowly heated, it will not perceive the danger and will be slowly cooked to death. The story is often used as a metaphor for the inability or unwillingness of people to react to or be aware of threats that occur gradually.

boil-the-frog

Article by: Kseniya Kirillova

Russia: A “superpower” with no safety net   

Playing global games as a “superpower” has led Russia to the brink of disaster: the Russian population is slowly dying out. We’re not talking about volunteers or soldiers who have gone to fight in the Donbas or Syria, but about ordinary citizens who haven’t left the country. Many people are dying for the most trivial reasons, such as a flu vaccine. The high mortality during the current flu epidemic can be explained very simply – lack of imported drugs. Continue reading

Analyst: The Methods Moscow has Chosen to Fight Economic Crisis Will Only Deepen It

2015/7/29 11:39:44

The Russian government’s decision to try to balance the budget on the backs of the population by cutting pensions and reducing social spending has had the effect of cutting consumer demand at precisely the time when such demand could play a positive role in getting the Russian economy out of its slump.

By Paul Goble* for “Windows on Eurasia”:

July 28 – Because Moscow cannot cut spending on oil and gas as that sector is too closely tied to Putin, cannot cut spending on defense because of the military buildup, and cannot attract outside investment because of sanctions, the Kremlin is putting all the burden on the population, reducing effective demand, and making the situation even worse. Continue reading

Analyzing Using Discrepancy Charts

By Jim Onyschuk

Dealing with discrepancies and inconsistencies are a matter of course when doing genealogical research. Discrepancy Charts are logs which record the existence of contradictory information about the same individual. They are a useful way of keeping track of particular problems that need to be solved. A Discrepancy Chart helps you organize conflicting dates or places for a specific event in a person’s life.

Genealogical data will fall into the following categories:

  • Totally consistent, where every document provides the same date and place for each event, and there is no conflict between sources
  • There is some conflict, but the data is consistent enough that different researchers can reach the same conclusion
  • Completely inconsistent and inconclusive

A very common discrepancy may occur with age. For instance, a tombstone may indicate one age, a census another and immigration records yet another.

Example #1
When researching my grandfather Peter DUTKA, I found conflicting birth dates. In various records, there was differing birth years indicated for Peter. His daughters maintained that he was born on July 10, 1895. However, I found records to indicate that he was born in 1897. Which was the true year 1895 or 1897?

BIRTH DISCREPANCY CHART FOR PETER DUTKA

Why was there a two year discrepancy in his birth year dates? Would there have been a reason to say he was older? My first thought was to wonder “By upping his age, would this allow him to get out of school to work full-time on the farm and elsewhere and not have to attend school?” Was there a mandatory age for children remaining in school, when Peter went? I also speculated that, when he was older, he would have been eligible to receive Old Age Security at an earlier age.

 

I asked my aunt, why were there two different years listed? I offered my speculations at which she chuckled. She revealed that when he was immigrating, there was a special lower rate for children below a certain age, i.e. aged 10. Peter’s mother had the village priest prepare a document indicating that he was born in 1897, which qualified him for the special children’s rate. I imagine that this was probably a very common practice, which would have had the ship’s bursars scratching their heads, wondering about these very tall Ukrainian children roaming the decks.

Example #2
Searching for my grandmother’s (Mary DUTKA, nee BOJACZUK) date and place of birth, I found two different birth localities and two different birth dates.

BIRTH DISCREPANCY CHART FOR MARY DUTKA (NEE BOJACZUK)

The mystery is was Mary born in Storo Siolo or in Canada as was related by the daughters? If she was born on January 14, 1898, then she would have been born in Galicia (now Ukraine). If she was born January 14, 1899, this would place her in Canada. There is no record of Mary immigrating to Canada, which means that she was born here. Since the Census records and her marriage records indicate a Canadian birth then she would have been born January 14, 1899, 6 months after her parents arrived in Canada.

Often you will be unable to explain the difference and may never be able to say with a degree of certainty which date or location for an event is correct. There are cases where almost every document or record gives a different age or place of birth and determining which one is correct can be nearly impossible. The purpose of discrepancy charts is to summarize the conflicts between different record sources and to indicate the source for each conflicting piece of data. Using discrepancy charts will more easily allow you to weigh the evidence.

Primary and Secondary Sources

While analyzing conflicting pieces of information; researchers need to be aware of the

differences between primary and secondary sources. A source is considered to be primary if it was an original record recorded close to the time when the event actually took place, such as a Birth/Baptism Record and the informant had a logical reason to know the information and was likely present at the event. A source that is not primary is considered secondary.

Classifying a source as primary or secondary does not comment about its accuracy. Secondary sources can be correct and primary sources can be wrong. However, more credence is placed in primary sources for an event, especially when there are two or more primary sources that corroborate each other.

In some cases, you may not be able to determine who provided the information and therefore not know for certain if it is a primary or secondary record. Some records have a place for informant, but many do not.

In the examples listed above, the sources all listed are secondary sources for birth dates and birthplace. This does not mean that they are wrong; however, in this case since they all provide different birthdates, some of them are obviously incorrect.

Sources do not always agree, and the sources can easily be wrong. For these reasons, you need to access more than one record or source where possible and focus on primary sources if available. However, there are times when primary sources are not available and we are left to rely on a number of secondary sources. In my examples, I have no primary sources to call on, namely the birth certificates for Peter or Mary that lists their date and place of birth.

One Last Important Note

You should never change a source to correct it. If you are not fortunate enough to

determine the cause of the discrepancy, or at least be able to explain it, indicate that in

your notes. If not, leave it to others to solve this mystery.

The escalator of war: Ukraine going up, Russia – down

 
Escalator du metro

2015/07/05 • Analysis & Opinion, Op-ed

Article by: Vitaliy Portnikov

Ukraine will end 2015 with its worst ever rate of economic growth. Vladimir Putin might be feeling triumphant. No wonder he tirelessly “poured gasoline” on Ukraine, annexed Crimea, and started slaughtering people on Donbas. Now everyone can see for themselves what Maidan must really mean. If you go out to protest, then your territory will be taken away, you’ll see war, your national currency will fall. But where there are no protests, life is just fine for the docile and responsible…

Only now life for the docile and responsible is no better than that of the troublemakers. In the rankings of economic declines, Russia is right down there with Ukraine.

Both countries have almost the same decline in GDP: Ukraine – 4 percent as compared with the fourth quarter of last year. In Russia it’s 3.5 percent. And this despite the fact that Ukraine has lost territory, while Russia has acquired

Continue reading

Analyzing Using Discrepancy Charts

By Jim Onyschuk

Dealing with discrepancies and inconsistencies are a matter of course when doing genealogical research. Discrepancy Charts are logs which record the existence of contradictory information about the same individual. They are a useful way of keeping track of particular problems that need to be solved. A Discrepancy Chart helps you organize conflicting dates or places for a specific event in a person’s life.

Genealogical data will fall into the following categories:

  • Totally consistent, where every document provides the same date and place for each event, and there is no conflict between sources
  • There is some conflict, but the data is consistent enough that different researchers can reach the same conclusion
  • Completely inconsistent and inconclusive Continue reading